The use of reflective materials for safety
The use of reflective materials for safety. What materials are reflective? Reflective materials include reflective film, reflective fabric, reflective clothing and reflective products. The reflective material plays an obvious warning role in the daytime with its bright color. In the case of night or light, its awakening effect can effectively enhance human recognition ability, mainly for personal safety protection and traffic safety protection. Usually, reflective film and reflective fabric are collectively referred to as reflective materials.
How Does Retro Reflective Material Work: The reflective material is also called a retro reflecting material or retro reflective material. By implanting a high refractive index glass bead or forming a microprism structure on the surface of the corresponding material (such as resin), the light is reflected back to the light source according to the original path, forming a regressive reflection (or retro reflective).
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Reflective materials in road safety
On the night of 23 May 2010, a vicious traffic accident happened on the highway from Changchun to Shenzhen in China. The main cause of the accident was that the driver of the truck missed the exit and turned it out in the lounge area and ran reverse. The result led to a collision with the bus that was running normally, causing a malignant traffic accident that killed 32 people on the spot.
There is no doubt that the driving of a large truck has made a fatal mistake. But in addition to enhancing the driver’s awareness of safety, are there any other measures to eliminate such errors and to avoid or reduce the possibility of accidents?
If there is a full indication of the sign
Road traffic safety knowledge: Professionals engaged in the study of accident prevention believe that people cannot avoid making mistakes, some are low-grade mistakes, some are advanced errors, and a normal driver who accepts the export prompt information in time and accurately is impossible to deliberately miss the export and choose the wrong route. Therefore, to reduce the occurrence of reverse driving caused by missing exports, the first technical work to do is to optimize the setting of the traffic sign system, so that the expression of traffic language is more fully expressed.
The quantity and quality of export signs should fully consider the needs of different vehicle types. If the driver of a large truck takes effective hints, he will leave the road at the intersection where he should go. The above tragedy is quite likely to be avoided.
DOT Retroreflective Tape Regulations
DOT retro reflective tape regulations: In the United States, the exit hints on the expressway are specified, for example, at least 2 miles, 1 miles, and 500 feet of advance notice signs, and every level of notice on a one-way road over three lanes should be given to the corresponding lane for lane use, informing straight, mixed or running. The vehicle driving away from the main road is to choose the lane ahead of time; the export notification sign should correspond to the exit position, and the indication sign on the right exit cannot be placed on the left side of the road. These Provisions, in order to avoid retrograde and traffic accidents caused by the wrong and missed the exit.
In the national standard of traffic control in America, there are a series of detailed rules for the setting of highway exit signs. Among them, it is an important safety measure to inform the selection direction of the driveway ahead of time, set the sign at the exit position, and clarify the export information.
The reverse reflection performance of export marks should be considered for the recognition condition of large truck drivers. The driving eye of a large truck is usually about 2.5 meters high, and the headlight of a large truck is twice as long as that of a car. The condition of its observation sign is much worse than a car (100 meters on the highway). This requires that the reverse reflection performance of the traffic sign has the advantages of a large angle measurement. This is clearly stipulated in the standards of traffic signs set up in some parts of the United States and Europe. For this reason, the Congress of the United States put forward legislative proposals in 1993, requiring the minimum parameter index of traffic sign retroreflective coefficient, and it was formally implemented in 2008.
In contrast, China’s national standards related to traffic sign retroreflective materials ignore technical indicators for large scale angle measurement on high-grade highways. Researchers believe that this lack is the technical background that many truck drivers in China are likely to miss the export and retrograde return. It’s also the main technical background for many motorists to use the high light.
According to the introduction, the driving eye of a car driver is about 1.2 meters, while the driving rate of a large truck driver is usually around 2.5 meters. That is to say, the object that the truck driver observed at night, especially the logo made with the reflective material, is less bright than the car driver, because the reflected light obtained by the truck driver is on the outside of the retro reflective light source.
Safety warning signs are required on the ramp of the freeway rest area, especially the sign signs that are not allowed to go retrograde. The construction level of the Chinese expressway is very high, the rest area is broad and luxurious, but in the dead of night, the possibility of wrong direction judgment is easy to exist because of the lack of the necessary security warning signs and the prohibition of the retrograde sign.
The researchers believe that this requires both sides of the inside road on the ramp on the entrance of the rest area and the 2 layers of prohibition warning signs that can achieve a high literacy of 24 hours all weather and high literacy. The warning signs are made with graphics and words. On the ramp, the door frame is set at the same time, and the route selection information is warned, and the inside of the rest area is set up. The indicator and warning signs of the exit route are constantly instructed, and all weather marking materials are made on the ground. It is more easy to identify guide arrows and hints for driving high driver’s high driving eye. If these security tips are accepted, the driver will not drive in reverse direction because of the wrong exit.
Retro reflective technology and low cost security measures
Prevention and control of road traffic accidents is a very complex and challenging job, and many prevention and governance measures involve huge investment. Until now, no matter the developed countries or developing countries, there has been no cure for road traffic accidents. But that does not mean that there is a reason to give up the prevention and control of road traffic accidents.
It is precisely because people have persisted in the prevention and treatment of road traffic accidents for a long time, so that the road traffic accidents can be effectively controlled under the condition of increasing car ownership. Sweden, for example, put forward the goal of “zero vision” for road traffic accidents more than 10 years ago. The core idea is that people cannot make mistakes, and the setting of traffic safety facilities should avoid driving mistakes and accidents caused by these mistakes as much as possible to achieve “zero defects”. “Zero vision” points out that traffic accidents are not responsible for accidents alone. Traffic engineering technicians should also take responsibility. The goal is to make both road users and road builders work together to make the risk factor zero.
According to the statistics of WHO, 85% fatal accidents and 90% disability accidents happen in developing countries every year. The reason is that besides traffic participants and vehicle factors, the improvement of safety conditions for roads and surrounding environment is also an important factor that cannot be ignored. The utilization rate and effective utilization rate of road traffic signs and markings in developed countries are much higher than those in developing countries. More importantly, most of the road traffic standard surface lines in the developed countries are made of advanced reverse reflection technology, and the scientific and rational selection is set up, which greatly improves the effectiveness and reliability of the marking line in the prevention of road traffic accidents.
The biggest feature of the reverse reflection technology is to make full use of the light of the car lamp, control the direction of the vehicle’s front light through the surface structure of the reverse reflective material (the reflective material), so as to improve the safety sight distance of the driver, optimize the recognition effect of the traffic control facilities along the road, strengthen the influence of the traffic rules and regulations, and let driving the driving. We should get more time and more experience to judge the road conditions and get guidance information so that we can take corresponding measures in time. Experts believe that it is the use of physical means to mobilize the subjective initiative of people and to improve road safety. It is an effective and low cost road safety solution for energy conservation and environmental protection.
In the improvement measures of road traffic safety, active safety measures and passive safety measures are divided according to the occurrence of accidents. Passive safety measures refer to the safety measures that can reduce the degree of loss and injury after the accident, such as setting road guardrails and isolating belts. The purpose is to reduce the intensity of collision and reduce the serious injury accidents such as death and prevent the “accident deterioration”. Active safety measures are the measures to prevent accidents, such as drawing and installing all kinds of road traffic signs, marking lines, traffic lights, flashing signals, nails, body lamps and body reflective signs, in order to reduce the occurrence of accidents.
The retro reflective technology is used to improve the effectiveness of the active safety measures, that is, using the reflective materials to make traffic sign lines to improve the recognition conditions, thus improve the safety view distance and reduce the solution of the accident. In North America, Europe and some parts of China, there are some successful cases. None of these solutions touched on the road foundation engineering measures. They belong to the measures of additions and remedies. In Transportation Engineering in America, Europe and other countries, it is generally referred to as “low cost road safety improvement measures”. In 1996, the Ministry of transport of the United States, in the national traffic report of the Congress, summed up the rate of return on investment in 20 traffic safety improvements over the past 20 years, of which the rate of return on traffic signs was 122.4, that is, $1 per investment in traffic signs could reduce the loss of traffic accidents by 22.4 dollars. In recent years, the US government has been pushing the popularization of “low cost road safety improvement measures” in the form of grants and laws.
The Sinicization of the standard of reflective materials
In 1988, China’s first expressway, Shanghai and Jia expressway, first used the reflective film to make traffic signs, which opened the prelude to the use of reverse reflection technology in China’s road traffic engineering facilities. Since then, the national standard “road traffic sign marking” (GB5768-1999) specially proposed the technical requirements for the use of reflective materials for traffic signs; in 2002, the road traffic sign reflective film (GB/T18833) was promulgated and implemented.
In 2008, the Ministry of public security and the Ministry of information technology jointly acted on the national standard “motor vehicle safety operating conditions” (GB7258-2004) third supplementary case, requiring all freight vehicles to stick to the body anti light logo according to standard. The promulgation and implementation of these standards indicate that the application of reflective materials in the field of traffic safety in China has been highly concerned and entered a new development period.
Reflective Vinyl Industry Prospect And Development Trend: In recent years, the application of reflective materials in the field of traffic safety in China has been extended from traffic sign marking and large truck reflective marking to motor vehicle numbers, agricultural machinery vehicles, students’ bicycles and clothing, in order to improve traffic recognition conditions at night and bad weather, and ensure security.
And researchers believe that, from the point of view of security needs, there is still a lot of space for the national standards, such as increasing the durability and maintenance standards of traffic signs, and establishing the service life and luminance attenuation standards of traffic signs as soon as possible; it should be concerned about regional differences for special safety requirements. In the area, we should open up the space for improving safety standards, and make the national standard a driving force for the construction of traffic safety.
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